Hacker: An individual with advanced computer skills who can exploit vulnerabilities in systems for various purposes, including security testing or malicious intent.

Cracker: Someone who engages in hacking with malicious intent, typically for unauthorized access or data theft.

Phishing: A technique in which hackers impersonate legitimate entities to trick users into revealing sensitive information, such as login credentials.

Malware: Malicious software designed to harm or compromise a computer system, including viruses, Trojans, and ransomware.

Virus: A type of malware that attaches itself to legitimate programs and spreads when those programs are executed.

Trojan Horse: Malware disguised as legitimate software that can infiltrate a system and provide unauthorized access to hackers.

Ransomware: Malware that encrypts a victim's files and demands a ransom for the decryption key.

Botnet: A network of compromised computers, or "bots," controlled by a single entity for various malicious activities.

Zero-Day Vulnerability: A security flaw in software or hardware that is unknown to the vendor and, therefore, unpatched.

Exploit: A piece of code or technique used to take advantage of vulnerabilities in software or systems.

Backdoor: A hidden or unauthorized method of accessing a system, often created by hackers for future access.

Denial of Service (DoS) Attack: An attack that overwhelms a system or network with excessive traffic to disrupt its normal operation.

Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) Attack: A DoS attack orchestrated from multiple sources to amplify its impact.

Firewall: A security device or software that filters network traffic to prevent unauthorized access.

Intrusion Detection System (IDS): A security system that monitors network or system activity for suspicious behavior or attacks.

Intrusion Prevention System (IPS): A security system that not only detects but also actively blocks potential threats.

Packet Sniffing: Capturing and analyzing data packets as they travel across a network to gather information or exploit vulnerabilities.

Social Engineering: Manipulating individuals into divulging confidential information or performing actions that compromise security.

Keylogger: A type of malware that records keystrokes on a compromised system, often used to steal login credentials.

Payload: The malicious code or action that a hacker's exploit carries out after successfully compromising a system.

Rootkit: Malicious software that provides unauthorized access to a system while concealing its presence.

Buffer Overflow: A vulnerability that occurs when a program writes more data to a buffer than it can handle, potentially allowing for code execution.

Man-in-the-Middle (MitM) Attack: A type of attack where an attacker intercepts and potentially alters communication between two parties.

White Hat Hacker: Ethical hackers who use their skills to identify and fix security vulnerabilities with permission.

Black Hat Hacker: Malicious hackers who engage in cybercrime for personal gain or harm.

Gray Hat Hacker: Individuals who operate between ethical and malicious hacking, sometimes without proper authorization.

Bug Bounty Program: An initiative that rewards individuals for responsibly disclosing security vulnerabilities to organizations.

Zero-Day Exploit: An exploit targeting a zero-day vulnerability, often used before a vendor can release a patch.

Cybersecurity: The practice of protecting computer systems, networks, and data from unauthorized access or damage.

Encryption: The process of converting data into a secure code to protect its confidentiality.

Decryption: The reverse process of converting encrypted data back to its original form.

Cryptography: The study of secure communication techniques, including encryption and decryption.

Penetration Testing: Ethical hacking performed to identify and address vulnerabilities in a system.

Payload: The part of an exploit that carries out the intended malicious action after a successful compromise.

Social Engineering: Manipulating individuals into revealing confidential information or taking actions that compromise security.

DNS Spoofing: Redirecting domain name system (DNS) requests to malicious websites to intercept traffic.

Worm: Self-replicating malware that spreads to other systems without user interaction.

Brute Force Attack: A method of trying all possible combinations to guess a password or encryption key.

Honeypot: A decoy system or network designed to attract hackers and monitor their activities.

Vulnerability: A weakness or flaw in a system or software that can be exploited by attackers.

Patch: A software update or fix released by vendors to address security vulnerabilities.

Pharming: Redirecting website traffic to a fraudulent site, often used for phishing attacks.

Exploit Kit: A toolkit containing various exploits to target multiple vulnerabilities.

Adware: Software that displays unwanted advertisements to generate revenue for hackers.

Root Access: Privileged access to the root or administrative account of a system.

Malvertising: Malicious advertisements that can deliver malware to users' devices.

Logic Bomb: Malicious code that triggers a specific action when certain conditions are met.

Botmaster: An individual who controls a botnet.

C2 (Command and Control) Server: A server used by hackers to control compromised systems.

Payload Delivery: The method by which an attacker delivers malicious code to a target system.

Hacker Tools: Software or scripts used by hackers to perform various tasks, from scanning for vulnerabilities to launching attacks.

Fuzzing: A technique that involves sending random or unexpected data to a program to discover vulnerabilities.

Data Breach: Unauthorized access to sensitive data, often resulting in its exposure or theft.

APT (Advanced Persistent Threat): A long-term and sophisticated cyberattack, often attributed to nation-states.

Patch Management: The process of applying security patches and updates to systems and software.

Cyber Hygiene: Best practices and measures individuals and organizations should follow to maintain digital security.

VPN (Virtual Private Network): A technology that encrypts internet connections to enhance privacy and security.

Incident Response Plan: A predefined set of actions to take in the event of a cybersecurity incident.

Threat Vector: The means by which a cyber threat can enter a system or network.

Security Audit: A systematic evaluation of an organization's security policies, procedures, and controls.

Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA): A security measure that requires users to provide multiple forms of authentication to access an account or system.

Root Access: Elevated access privileges that grant full control over a system or network.

Zero Trust Security: A security model that distrusts all users and devices by default, requiring verification for access.

Cyber Threat Intelligence: Information about potential cyber threats and vulnerabilities used to enhance security.

Session Hijacking: Unauthorized access to an ongoing user session, often through session tokens or cookies.

Zero Knowledge Proof: A cryptographic method that allows one party to prove knowledge of a secret without revealing the secret itself.

IoT (Internet of Things) Security: Protecting interconnected smart devices and networks from cyber threats.

Dark Web: A hidden part of the internet where illegal activities often occur, including the sale of stolen data and hacking services.

Blockchain Security: Ensuring the security and integrity of blockchain networks and cryptocurrencies.

AI (Artificial Intelligence) in Cybersecurity: The use of AI algorithms to enhance threat detection and response.

Quantum Computing: A technology with potential implications for breaking current encryption methods, requiring new cybersecurity approaches.

Red Team vs. Blue Team: Simulated cybersecurity exercises where "red teams" act as attackers, and "blue teams" defend against them.

Threat Actor: An individual, group, or entity responsible for cyberattacks or threats.

IoC (Indicator of Compromise): A piece of data that indicates a security incident or breach, such as malware signatures or abnormal network traffic.

Cyber Insurance: Insurance policies that provide financial protection in the event of a cybersecurity incident.

Vulnerability Assessment: A systematic review of systems and networks to identify potential weaknesses.

Web Application Firewall (WAF): A security solution that filters and protects web applications from various attacks.

Cyber Kill Chain: A step-by-step model that outlines the stages of a cyberattack, from initial reconnaissance to data exfiltration.

Deep Web: Parts of the internet not indexed by search engines and often requiring specific access or authorization.

CISO (Chief Information Security Officer): The executive responsible for an organization's information security strategy and management.

Patch Tuesday: The day when Microsoft typically releases security updates and patches.

Cryptography Key: A piece of information used in cryptographic algorithms to encrypt and decrypt data.

NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology): A U.S. federal agency that sets standards and guidelines for information security.

Zero Trust Network Access (ZTNA): A security model that requires authentication and verification for network access.

Cybersecurity Framework: A structured approach to managing and improving an organization's cybersecurity posture.

Root Cause Analysis: Investigating the underlying causes of a cybersecurity incident or breach.

Security Information and Event Management (SIEM): A system that collects and analyzes security data from various sources to identify threats.

Network Segmentation: Dividing a network into smaller segments to enhance security and control access.

Honeynet: A network designed to lure and study cyber attackers' behaviors and techniques.

Virus Signature: A unique pattern or code that identifies a specific virus or malware variant.

White Box Testing: A security testing approach where testers have full knowledge of the internal system architecture.

Black Box Testing: A security testing approach where testers have no prior knowledge of the system's internal structure.

VPN Tunneling: The process of encrypting and securely transmitting data between two endpoints over a VPN.

Network Intrusion Detection System (NIDS): A security system that monitors network traffic for signs of intrusion or suspicious activity.

Cross-Site Scripting (XSS): A web application vulnerability that allows attackers to inject malicious scripts into web pages viewed by other users.

Cryptography Key Management: The process of generating, storing, and protecting cryptographic keys.

Security Token: A physical or virtual device used for two-factor authentication or access control.

Security Awareness Training: Education and training programs aimed at improving individuals' cybersecurity awareness and behaviors.

Security Incident Response Team (SIRT): A team responsible for coordinating responses to cybersecurity incidents.

Digital Forensics: The process of collecting, preserving, and analyzing digital evidence to investigate cybercrimes and security incidents.